In Frances Burney’s Evelina (1778), a masterful tale of love and discovery, the novel’s namesake character takes center stage. Among a truly diverse set of characters, her authenticity and innocence stand out. Throughout her many adventures, she deals with people who are strong, polite, ill-mannered, rude, scheming, playful, honorable, trustworthy, self-centered, gracious, and jealous. While she is an outsider, she is not the only one. There is one fellow outsider who holds many of these qualities, less the positive ones: Captain Mirvan. Evelina is sent to stay with the Mirvan at Howard Grove. She soon finds out that the merchant captain, who has been ship-bound for seven years, is coming back home—possibly for good. Much to her dismay, Mirvan is rude and troublesome. He puts down others and finds ways to entertain himself. He greatly dislikes Evelina’s grandmother, Madame Duval, and enjoys making her life miserable. The only thing that seems to really make him happy is playing cruel tricks on Madame Duval. The Captain doesn’t seem to care about anyone, except for himself. He finds pleasure in other people’s misery. It appears that he fits the classic model of a hedonist. However, Captain Mirvan’s behavior is not ultimately due to hedonism, but is because he is a man out of his element.
The U.S. Civil War is a topic that all Americans are aware of, at least in some sense. The fact that slaves played a pivotal role in this time is well known. Yet, for thousands of black men that fought for the Union, oftentimes dying, their story was largely forgotten. In her 2006 Pulitzer Prize-winning poetry book, Native Guard, Natasha Trethewey – the 19th Poet Laureate of the United States – gave life to the story of an all-black regiment that kept an eye on captured white Confederate soldiers. They were stationed on Ship Island in the Gulf Coast, and were not treated the same way as their white comrades. Through the writing of a literate, but nameless, guard, the toils of war are told through his eyes. In the multi-part poem, which mirrors the book’s title, Trethewey’s fictional character, a former slave, composes journal entries over a more than two year period. Although the soldier was born nearby and is considered a free man, he feels the tight grip of his past still holding him. Guarding white prisoners, the role of the jailer now seems reversed; he imprisons men who would have no qualms about owning him. This intelligent and literate soldier shows that the power of the written word is an equalizer, which frees the mind from bondage.Continue Reading
In 1912, a man was born, one who’d become a voice for the hard-working people of America. His name was Woody Guthrie. He was from a small town in Oklahoma, where the people did what they could with what little they had. His parents did what they could to raise their children, even though it was often difficult to get by. Before Woody was in school, he would make up songs and sing them on stage, which was really his front porch. His mother taught him and his siblings songs. In fact, Woody’s grandmother said that his mother loved music as a kid, singing and playing piano. His mother would explain the background to the lyrics and told her children to try to understand how other people see things. In his autobiography Bound For Glory, Guthrie recalls that he loved listening to his mother sing “The Sherman Cyclone”; he fell asleep listening to the words, “thinking about all the people in the world that have worked hard and had somebody else come along and take their life away from them” (Guthrie 88). Over the years, Guthrie would face the same scenarios as other down-on-their-luck workers. Yet, his heartfelt lyrics, describing the plight of the destitute, gave needed voice to the voiceless. Guthrie’s vision was one that unified the poor, no matter their background or skin color.Continue Reading
The Civil Rights Movement was both inevitable and necessary. Black people all across the country, especially in the South, knew it was time for their voices to be heard; they were tired of being treated as second-class citizens, or worse. For many years, African Americans found solace in singing spirituals in their predominately black churches. Of course, some of those were burned down by the KKK. In 1963, that same hate group bombed a Birmingham Baptist church, killing four black girls; African Americans weren’t even safe inside their own places of worship. During the Civil Rights era, African Americans often marched hand-in-hand, while singing about the freedom they dreamed of. With the untimely assassinations of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr., songs sung within King’s continuing non-violent movement, while bringing hope to many, were not going to sway the hearts of oppressors. The soulful songs of the Civil Rights Movement, however, helped bring millions of black-as well as white-people together, which strengthened the fight for freedom.Continue Reading